CINAGE Glossary

Active ageing

The World Health Organisation has defined active ageing as a full citizenship process which involves creating the most opportunities for participation, security and greater quality of life as people age. Active ageing involves independence in activities, social contribution, emotional connections, supporting people to adapt to age-related limitations, resilience, creative leisure, sexuality, retaining own values, and removing structural barriers to participation. Some aspects, such as health and wellbeing, can be seen as enabling active ageing, whereas aspects such as creative leisure activity, volunteering and paid work are elements of active ageing.


Ageing is viewed as a process going on from the minute we are born. It is composed of evolution and devolution processes. It is a lifelong process, going on from cradle to grave.

Ageing population

An ageing population is defined as a population in which the number of elderly (65+) is increasing relative to the number of 20-64 year olds. This phenomenon occurs when the average age of a country or region rises due to rising life expectancy and/or declining birth rates

Ageing society

Every month more than a million people turn 60. The world is ageing rapidly The number of people aged 65 and over will double as a proportion of the global population, from 7% in 2000 to 16% in 2050. By then, there will be more older people than children (aged 0–14 years) in the population for the first time in human history.


A process of systematic stereotyping and discrimination against people because they are old, just as racism and sexism accomplish this for skin colour and gender.


In the 18th century the French philosopher Nicolas de Condorcet argued that education should be for all including adults.
The term andragogik, as opposed to pedagogy, however, was coined by Alexander Knapp, a German grammar school teacher in the 19th century. Then it was used by the Journal of Adult Education and Malcolm Knowles (1913-1997) in his work of developing a unified system of adult education (The Meaning of Adult Education). The theory of andragogy is based on assumptions that distinguish it from pedagogy or traditional teaching method, shifting the focus from the teacher to the learner, self-directed learning and perspective transformation, etc...

Assistant director

The person who carries out a number of procedural duties for the director, which include scheduling shooting, arranging logistics, calling personnel to the proper location for shooting, maintaining order on the set, communicating with crews, rehearsing performers and doing whatever tasks the director may find necessary.


Autonomy in older age means having or keeping independence or freedom of action, rather than being treated as dependent.


Microphone boom: a long, mobile, telescopic arm with a microphone attached at one end that is held over the speaker’s head, outside the camera’s frame. The boom follows the characters about and permits synchronous sound recording of the entire scene.

Camera operator

The person who works under the director of photography and is directly responsible for managing the camera during shooting. He or she is responsible for viewing the scene through the viewfinder and making certain that the image is correct, for positioning the camera, and for making basic movements.

Camera placement

Part of the language of cinema is dependent on an understanding of camera position and movement, lens selection, and scene coverage. They are critical to all forms of narrative storytelling.


How character is depicted and revealed on screen. How physical attributes, emotional responses and actions provide insight into character.

Civic and Community

This competency concerns what is required to be an active older citizen, taking part in activities of benefit to the individual and society. The activities could involve doing voluntary work, or possibly some form of employment or paid work, also it could mean caring work in the family, or for others in the community The community to which an individual contributes can be a family, local service, neighbourhood, town, region, nation or global.

Clap board
(also known as “slate board”)

A slate with a pair of boards hinged together that is photographed at the beginning of each take, both for information concerning the take and for synchronization of sound and picture.

Colour Correction

Colour correction ensures that all shots within each scene match one another, by balancing colour saturation and luminance from shot to shot, so that no one shot stands out in the sequence. Colour correction can offer creative solutions to any picture related problems, e.g., under or over exposure, day for night corrections, etc. And editor working with colour correction should understand the psychological effect of colours, in order to enhance the narrative of the film.


This word has different meanings. In relation to active ageing, it means what is required for older people to live and participate actively within communities and society. Although competency is often considered in terms of abilities of individuals, in this project there is a society competency level, which can be considered at least equally important. For example the ‘health’ competency for active ageing not only requires individual behaviours which promote health, but also social structures such as healthcare systems that support older people to manage their health.

Context-based learning/CBL

Refers to the use of real-life and fictitious examples in learning environments in order to learn through the actual, practical experience with a subject rather than just its mere theoretical parts. It can be generalized as: The most important single factor influencing learning is the active engagement of the learner with the material. Obtain this - and teach by whatever methods retain this engagement.


The continuous flow of a film, where shot follows shot and scene follows scene in an understandable and smooth way. An effective continuity makes us unaware of the cutting as we watch the film, of the way in which the camera and cutting control our responses. Effective continuity is dependent upon the proper matching of details, movement and dialogue from shot to shot, and the logical and explicit development of plot from scene to scene.


The group of people involved in some phase of the making of a film.


This is the study of human populations, using statistics to examine such aspects as the size, growth, structure and distribution of groups of people. Demographic analysis can be applied to a particular population group such as men and women aged over 65, and can take account of changes across geographical space and across time, in relation to dimensions such as birth, death, migration, and ageing.

Digital inclusion

Digital inclusion for older people concerns overcoming an aspect of social inequality where older people who are unable to access and use technologies (such as computers and internet) are disadvantaged, marginalised and digitally and socially excluded. Digital inclusion involves overcoming financial and other barriers to access, and overcoming barriers to use which include skills and competencies, social factors, and on-going support


The Director is the driving creative force in a film's production, and acts as the crucial link between the production, technical and creative teams. Directors are responsible for creatively translating the film's written script into actual images and sounds on the screen - he or she must visualise and define the style and structure of the film, then act as both a storyteller and team leader to bring this vision to reality


Editors are responsible for the way a story unfolds and grabs the attention of the audience. They ensure that the story flows effortlessly from beginning to end, each shot is carefully chosen and edited into a series of scenes, which are in turn assembled to create the finished film.


This competency concerns what is required for older people to maintain autonomy and dignity in older age, and to be able to feel in control. It also involves maintaining meaningful social and emotional connections, care and support, at home and in the community


Empowering approaches to active ageing encourage older people to draw on and extend their own capacities to make effective choices in life, and to exercise autonomy and decision-making power in relation to their lives and their social environment. Social challenges to empowering older people include economic inequalities e.g. concerning employment and pensions and social provision for learning, health support, and opportunities for civic participation.

Experiential Reflection

The idea of watching others and developing observations about one’s own experience, relating one’s own experience to that of others, and seeing how others might see your own experience.


The act of making any type of motion picture, including preproduction, production and postproduction phases.


This competency concerns what is required for older people to have financial security to be able to live an active, meaningful life. This includes having an adequate income across the life-course, opportunities for continuing to work without age discrimination, and adequate social protection, including pensions and other allowances.


This competency concerns what is required for older people to maintain their health and well-being in older age. Health and well-being involve physical, mental and social aspects. The quality of health services and support, people’s lifestyle, their opportunities for social networks, social care and environmental security can all influence health and well-being.


Holistic approaches to active ageing focus positively on the importance of the whole person, including social, physical, and psychological aspects, rather than separating out different parts such as physical health only, or a particular limiting condition only.

Ice breaker

An ice breaker is an activity, game, or event that is used to welcome and warm up the conversation among participants in a training class, team building session, or other event. Any event that requires people to comfortably interact with each other and a facilitator is an opportunity to use an ice breaker.

Later life

Is a period of life belonging to the second half of life, starting at different ages. When one reaches median age in a country, one is considered being older or old.


The learning competency concerns what is required to continue to learn in older age, and to learn in a way that is relevant for older age. This might include formal and/or informal learning, and could involve a wide range of possibilities including learning skills and knowledge, learning something creative, or learning new technology like e-technology (computers and the internet).

Learning and education in later life

The term was coined by Peter Jarvis and conference participants in 1995 in Ulm. Later-life refers to different stages of life and to different groups of older people: older workers, people about to get retired, retires who are in a dynamic process between work, retirement and old age, older people in institutional care or in general dependent older people. Policy makers refer to people who are at this stage of life calling them “older people”, “older adults” and seniors or, now less frequently, “third agers”.
Learning is a process of active engagement with experience. Learning happens if and when behaviour changes (activity, thinking, emotions, etc.). It is what people do when they want to make sense of the world. It may involve an increase in skills, knowledge or understanding, a deepening of values or the capacity to reflect. Effective learning will lead to change, development and a desire to learn more.
Education in later-life means organised and target oriented learning of different groups of older people.

Life history

Past and present life and life to come can be encompassed in a narrative (people, events. feelings) making us understand the connections between different impacts on our life and decisions taken as well as our being more or less active in later life.


A life-course approach to learning for active ageing stresses the importance of all ages and stages of life and acknowledges the intergenerational context within which individuals live. It recognises that ageing and learning occur within a broad life process, and that cultural experiences earlier in life shape later experiences, decisions and outcomes. A life-course approach also emphasises that events that matter to individuals in later life may not necessarily be best ranked in chronological order – most recent events are not necessarily the most important.

Lifelong learning

This is the on-going pursuit of learning for personal or professional reasons throughout life and in a range of situations. Learning can take place not only in formal settings but also in non-formal learning groups, through daily interactions and in a wide range of environments. The Lifelong Learning Programme has been a European funding programme which has supported education and training for all age groups across Europe.


The illumination of performers, action, and setting in the making of a motion picture. Lighting is one of the major elements in the motion picture and is basically responsible for the fact that we see any image on the screen; but, in more specific ways, lighting is responsible for both the quality of the images and for much of the film’s dramatic effect.

Line Producer

The person brought in to prepare the budget, and execute it. She is the person primarily responsible for the “below-the-line” items, and the original studio term was “Below-the-line Producer.” That has since been shortened to line producer. Hence, the term “line producer.” Once pre-production starts, the line producer’s main responsibility is to see that the film doesn’t go over budget. She prepares cost reports and cash flow reports, working closely with the production manager and the production accountant.


To apply cosmetics to performers or to costume them in order to enhance their appearance, prepare them for a role or make them suitable for photography.

Make-up artist

The person responsible for applying makeup to the performers in a film.


Elements of visual style, set and cinematography. Also related to the emotional tone of a film.


Motivation shapes and encourages our behaviour. It can be extrinsic or intrinsic (inner). It is an internal drive that activates behaviour and gives it direction. It encompasses a number of elements like needs, aspirations, readiness to be active, emotions, knowledge etc.

Movie-based learning/MBL

A form of learning that uses movies, plus videos, as learning tools. Cinema can be a catalyst for healing and growth for those who are open to learning how movies affect people and to watching certain films with conscious awareness. Cinema allows one to use the effect of imagery, plot, music, etc. in films on the psyche for self-reflection, insight, inspiration, emotional release or relief and change. Particularly it can help older people connect with story lines and the movie characters, learning about themselves in more profound ways.


The concept of active ageing is multidimensional because it has several aspects: and several competencies are required to support active ageing. This involves going beyond employment and productivity, including volunteering, lifelong learning and creative leisure, maintaining emotionally close relationships, sustaining choice, living by one’s own norms, independence and quality of life, combating ageism, and including the different older ages and inter-generational connections. Different competencies of active ageing like learning, health and emotional can interact in many ways.

Non formal education

Education, as a lifelong process which enables the continuous development of a person’s capabilities as an individual and as a member of society, can take three different forms:
-formal education- the structured educational system usually provided or supported by the state, chronologically graded and running from primary to tertiary institutions;
-informal education - learning that goes on in daily life and can be received from daily experience, such as from family, friends, peer groups, the media and other influences in a person’s environment and
- non-formal education- educational activity which is structured, has aims and objectives but follows a programme set up together with the participants. It takes place outside the formal system.

Older adults

People, whatever their chronological age, who are post-work and post-family, in the sense that they are less or no longer involved in an occupational career or with the major responsibilities for raising a family.

Old age

Is a period of life. Old age is also a social construct, a matter of tacit agreement in each single society.

Picture Lock

Picture lock is a stage in editing a film when all changes to the cut have been finished and approved.


The preparation for making a film, preceding the actual shooting, that includes casting, contracting performers and production personnel, securing locations, designing and building the sets, etc.


The producer's job is to bring it all together. The producer may initiate a project or be hired by a studio to ‘produce a project’. The producer hires the director, the screen-writers, and all of the other technical crafts-persons who work on the film. The producer sets up the budget and meets the payroll and sees the production through from inception to distribution and marketing.


The various stages of putting the story on film after pre-production planning and before post-production. These stages include all the physical preparations for shooting (e.g., construction of sets, lighting and rehearsal) and the actual shooting itself. When the film is “in production” it is actually being shot.

Production manager

The individual in charge of the daily business arrangements for shooting and will make the deals for the equipment, locations, craft services, etc. He/she ensures the smooth running of the production period, that all elements are in place for each day and is in control of the budget during the production period.


Any movable object used on a set or in a scene.

Prop man, property master

The individual responsible for obtaining, altering, or building properties and making sure they are available when necessary during film production.


The term 'rushes' refers to the raw footage from each day's film shooting schedule


In social psychology, self-assessment is the process of looking at oneself in order to assess aspects that are important to one's identity. It is one of the motives that drive self-evaluation, along with self-verification and self-enhancement. Sedikides (1993) suggests that the self-assessment motive will prompt people to seek information to confirm their uncertain self-concept rather than their certain self-concept and at the same time people use self-assessment to enhance their certainty of their own self-knowledge. However, the self-assessment motive could be seen as quite different from the other two self-evaluation motives. Unlike the other two motives through self-assessment people are interested in the accuracy of their current self-view, rather than improving their self-view. This makes self-assessment the only self-evaluative motive that may cause a person's self-esteem to be damaged.


This means looking after personal health and wellbeing rather than being looked after. It can also include living a healthy lifestyle and staying active doing things that are important to the person concerned. It involves focusing on what older people can do rather than what they may not be able to do, and this includes obtaining support to be able to remain active and live in a healthy way.


The term set is an abbreviation of “setting”, which conveys the actual location of any scene, whether naturally or artificially constructed.

Set decorator

The individual who decorates or dresses the set with props, furnishings, ornamentations, and artwork.


The entire process of putting on film the action of a motion picture.

Shooting schedule

The plan for shooting on a single day or series of days, which include scenes and shots to be photographed, time and place of shooting, and required performers, personnel, equipment, and properties. Scenes frequently are shot out of sequence for reasons of economy and convenience.

Shooting script

The final written version of a film used by the director during shooting.


The term is sometimes defined as (1) “the single uninterrupted operation of the camera that results in a continuous action we see on the screen and sometimes as (2) “the continuous action on the screen resulting from what appears to be a single run of the camera”. However, it is best to (1) as “take” and only (2) as “shot” to preserve the sense of continuity and completeness we associate with the term.

Significant others

According to Eric Berne’s transactional analysis significant others are people who influenced our life and decisions taken in our early years and throughout our life indeed.

Sound Design

Sound design is the process of constructing the sonic identity of the film. This involves a variety of work, ranging from creating the noises of giant explosions or car crashes to the art of adding subtle sounds that enrich the language and feeling of films. Sound design most commonly involves the manipulation of previously composed or recorded audio, such as sound effects and dialogue. In some instances it may also involve the composition or manipulation of audio to create a desired effect or mood.

Sound editor

A sound editor is responsible for selecting and assembling sound recordings for the film. Sound editing developed out of the need to fix the incomplete, undramatic, or technically inferior sound recordings of early talkies, and over the decades has become a respected filmmaking craft, with sound editors implementing the aesthetic goals of the film and supporting the narrative of the film's story.


A panel or panels on which a sequence of sketches or images depict the significant changes of action and scene in a planned film.


Storytelling is the conveying of events in words, and images, often by improvisation or embellishment. Stories or narratives have been shared in every culture as a means of entertainment, education, cultural preservation, and instilling moral values. Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include plot, characters, and narrative point of view.


Subtext is the unspoken thoughts and motives of characters—what they really think and believe or an entire script can be a metaphor with a subtext that has a completely hidden meaning. It is content which is not announced explicitly but refers to the thoughts and motives of the characters.


A single uninterrupted recording of a shot. Normally several takes are photographed for each shot and the best is used in the edited film.


This competency concerns what is required for older people to have access to and be able to use technology for active ageing such as computers, mobile phones and apps; for social networking, and for communicating and learning online. It also concerns assistive technologies. Assistive technologies may include mobility aids, and forms of equipment that assist with getting support and care.

The Art of Editing

Editing is the art of taking raw footage and transforming it into something compelling and watchable. Just as written language has a structure from which to build story, so does visual language. This language encompasses the compression of time, and rhythm and pacing to determine its contribution to the theme of the story being told.

The Gaze

The position of the audience in relationship to the viewpoint of the camera/director: the representation of particular aspects of humanity on screen and the audience’s “reading” of that representation.

The Look of the Film

A director works closely with a director of photography, production designer and costume designers to create a colour palette that communicates the story of the film. Depending on what the story is about, and what the thematic underpinning is, the look of the film will be based on those.

Visual Metaphor

A visual metaphor is an image used in the place of or in conjunction with another to suggest an analogy between the images or make a statement with them.

Visual Storytelling

A story told primarily through the use of images and requires an understanding of the impact and power of image to communicate, rather than dialogue.


The clothing, costumes and accessories worn by the performers in a film

Wardrobe master

Any individual responsible for procuring clothing, costumes, and accessories for a film production before the actual shooting begins and for maintain them during the actual filming.

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